Introduction to Dryland Farming in India

Whether it is winter, summer, or rainy season, farmers are not stopping from farming throughout the year. However, they also consider climatic change and uneven weather conditions throughout the Dryland Farming year.

Growing crops in water-efficient areas is easier as the lands have adequate water for crop production. But what about areas with enough water but not receiving enough rainfall or areas in the region that are dry? How is farming done in arid regions?

What is Dryland Farming?

Dryland farming is the cultivation of crops without irrigation, using only natural rainwater. It is a way of subsisting in areas where the soil is too dry for crops that need a lot of water, such as rice or sugarcane. Dry regions have low and irregular rainfall and lack dependable irrigation systems. Dryland farming is important for the economy because it produces most of the coarse grains, legumes, oilseeds and raw cotton. 

The Significance of Dryland Farming Dryland farming allows crops to grow in dry and semi-arid areas without depending on natural rainfalls; it is very beneficial. Some parts of India have a chronic shortage of extra rainfall due to climate change. Therefore, dryland farming seems to be a good option for cultivating crops even in times of scarcity.

Dryland farming techniques:

Farmers must adopt specific techniques or learn about various practices in order to incorporate the habit of dryland farming into their farming activity. Investing in the right tractor will also help you adapt these techniques easier. In case you’re looking, the Trakstar Tractor Price is highly affordable and competitive.


Since evaporation is the root cause of  75% loss in rain water, mulching is the best way to keep moisture in the soil. Mulch can be made from plant waste, straws, plastic materials, and other items to keep water in the soil for a longer period of time. Plastic is the best mulch for retaining water.

Windbreaks and shelterbelts

A windbreak is a structure composed of rows of trees or other plants planted in such a way that they break the constant flow of wind, lowering the rate of evaporation. This combination of plants and trees, also known as a shelterbelt, protects the inner plants from strong winds. Windbreaks and shelterbelts are nearly identical.

Weed Control

Weed control is another practical method for slowing the evaporation process. Weeding on a regular basis extends the life of the moisture in the soil by ensuring that it is only available to beneficial plants.


An antitranspirant is a substance that helps to keep the water clean by limiting plant transpiration. It is sprayed on plant leaves to reduce transpiration.

Crops that can be grown or cultivated with dryland farming include

With the help of dryland farming, a wide range of crops can be grown and cultivated. Dryland farming can be used to grow a variety of crops ranging from cereal grains to legumes and leafy vegetables. Fruits can also be grown using dryland farming.

Dryland farming also includes winter season-grown wheat, maise, bans, sunflower, watermelon, tomatoes, pumpkin, rye, grapes, and other crops. Ragi has been proposed as the best crop to grow in dryland farming.

Improving Soil Moisture

Several techniques can be used to keep soil moisture. The majority of these soil moisture conservation methods are inexpensive. Many of the techniques focus on providing some sort of sun and heat protection to the soil in order to reduce evapotranspiration and direct soil exposure.

In general, most soil preservation and improvement techniques will also aid in soil moisture conservation. The following are some methods for preventing excessive soil moisture loss:

Deep tillage

Deep tillage, which is appropriate for regions and soils, can help increase the porosity and permeability of the soil, allowing it to absorb more water. Using a cultivator mounted on your Solis Tractor is a good way to give your field a deep tillage.

Mixed Cropping

Mixed cropping and interplanting refer to the practice of growing a variety of crops with varying planting schedules and growth phases.

Contour ploughing

By ploughing the soil along the contour rather than the uphill and downhill slopes, the rate of runoff is slowed, and more water is stored in the soil and distributed evenly across the field.

Crop Rotation

Rotating your crops each season improves the structure of the soil and, as a result, its ability to hold water. Rotating deep-rooted and shallow-rooted crops that use previously unused soil moisture are examples of how plants take water from various depths within the soil.

Growing plants solely for the purpose of adding organic matter and nutrients to the soil is known as “green manuring,” and the improved soil quality also improves the soil’s ability to retain water.

Dryland farming is practised in the following areas:

Dryland farming is practised in parts of Northern Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, and Tamil Nadu.


Dryland farming ensures the preservation of current resources, as new approaches to increasing the sustainability and productivity of the delicate dryland ecosystems would be required. To realise the evergreen revolution, we must use the most recent technological advances to transform drylands (grey regions) into green spaces.

Drylands offer excellent opportunities for the development of horticulture, horti-agroforestry, and other agricultural areas that not only provide food, fuel, and fodder for cattle but also an appropriate vegetative cover for ecological preservation.